Contribute STATS Staff Publications Receive email updates Are chemicals killing us? Appendix A
In Depth Analysis



Appendix A

ATTITUDES TOWARD CHEMICAL SAFETY

                                1              Strongly disagree
                                2              Somewhat disagree
                                3              Somewhat agree
                                4              Strongly agree
                                98            Not sure       

  1. Chemicals should be regulated according to the precautionary principle rather than risk benefit analysis
  2. The safety of most chemicals can be determined without animal testing
  3. Organic or “natural” products are inherently safer than other products
  4. Any level of exposure is unacceptable for chemicals that have been identified as carcinogens, mutagens or reproductive toxicants
  5. The detection of any level of a chemical in your body by bio-monitoring indicates a significant health risk
  6. Cosmetics are a significant source of chemical health risk
  7. Food additives are a significant source of chemical health risk
  8. Exposure to environmental chemicals contributes to adverse reproductive health effects associated with endocrine disruption
  9. Scientists should restrict their public statements on science policy matters to their own areas of expertise
  10. U.S. government regulators do a balanced job of explaining chemical risk to the general public
  11. The news media do not do a balanced job of explaining chemical risk to the general public
  12. Research findings should be published by professional peer-reviewed journals before they are reported in the media
  13. The peer review process is becoming overly politicized
  14. The U.S. system of chemical management and regulation is inferior to the European system
  15. Pesticides are a significant source of chemical health risk                                   

PERCEIVED LEVEL OF RISK

                Below is a list of items.  Please indicate what you feel is the degree of risk to human health posed by current levels of exposure to each item

               
                                1              Very Low Risk
                                2             
                                3             
                                4             
                                5
                                6
                                7              Very High Risk
                                98            Not sure

  1. Acrylamide
  2. Aflatoxin
  3. Artificial hormones
  4. Atrazine
  5. Benezene
  6. Bisphenol A
  7. Chlorine
  8. Chlorpyrifos
  9. DDT
  10. Dioxin
  11. EDB
  12. Environmental estrogens/endocrine disruptors
  13. Ethyl alcohol
  14. Formaldehyde
  15. Genetically-modified organisms (GMOs)
  16. High fructose corn syrup
  17. Mercury
  18. Nanomaterials and nanoparticles
  19. Parabens
  20. PBDEs
  21. PCBs
  22. PFOA
  23. Phthalates
  24. Radiation
  25. Saccharine
  26. Second-hand smoke from tobacco
  27. Smoking tobacco
  28. Chewing tobacco
  29. Sucralose
  30. Sunlight
  31. Teflon
  32. Triclosan

 

INFORMATION RELIABILITY

                Below is a list of non-government organizations.  Using the scale below, please indicate how accurately you feel each of these organizations portrays chemical risks to human health

                                1              Strongly understates risk
                                2              Somewhat understates risk               
                                3              Accurately states risk
                                4              Somewhat overstates risk
                                5              Strongly overstates risk
                                98            Not sure

  1. American Chemistry Council (ACC)
  2. American Council on Science and Health (ACSH)
  3. American Medical Association (AMA)
  4. Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI)
  5. Council for Biotechnology
  6. Environmental Defense Fund
  7. Environmental Working Group
  8. Federation of Societies of Experimental Biology (FASEB)
  9. Greenpeace
  10. National Academy of Science (NAS)
  11. National Cancer Institute (NCI)
  12. National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI)
  13. Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC)
  14. National Science Foundation (NSF)
  15. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA)
  16. Pew Charitable Trusts
  17. Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA)
  18. Society of Toxicology (SOT)

Below is a list of government organizations.    Using the scale below, please indicate how accurately you feel each of these organizations portrays chemical risks to human health.

                               
                                1              Strongly understates risk
                                2              Somewhat understates risk
                                3              Accurately states risk
                                4              Somewhat overstates risk
                                5              Strongly overstates risk
                                98            Not sure

  1. Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
  2. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC)
  3. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  4. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
  5. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
  6. National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)
  7. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
  8. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
  9. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  10. World Health Organization (WHO)

                Below is a list of media sources.  Using the scale below, please indicate how accurately you feel each of these media sources portrays chemical risks to human health.
           
                                1              Strongly understates risk
                                2              Somewhat understates risk
                                3              Accurately states risk
                                4              Somewhat overstates risk
                                5              Strongly overstates risk
                                98            Not sure

  1. Your local newspaper
  2. Your local television news
  3. Broadcast network news (ABC, CBS, NBC)
  4. Cable news channels (CNN, FOX, MSNBC)
  5. National newspapers like the New York Times, Wall Street Journal, and the Washington Post
  6. USA Today
  7. National news magazines such as Newsweek and Time
  8. WebMD
  9. Wikipedia
  10. National health magazines such as Modern Health and Prevention
  11. Public broadcasting such as NPR, PBS

MEDIA EFFECTIVENESS

                In your opinion, how well does the news media as a whole do each of the following when reporting issues related to toxicology?
      
                                1              Not at all well
                                2              Not very well       
                                3              Well
                                4              Very well
                                98            Not sure

  1. Explain that the dose makes the poison
  2. Distinguish between correlation and causation
  3. Distinguish between studies that are statistically rigorous and those that are not
  4. Explain the risk-benefit trade off in restricting certain chemicals
  5. Adequately distinguish between absolute and relative risk
  6. Accurately explain odds ratios in stories on risk
  7. Seek out diverse scientific views to balance stories on potential chemical risks

                Using the scale below, please indicate how appropriate you feel the weight the news media as a whole gives each of the following is when reporting issues related to toxicology?
                              
                                1              Too little weight  
                                2             
                                3              Appropriate weight  
                                4             
                                5              Too much weight                
                                99            Not sure

  1. Individual studies relative to the overall body of evidence
  2. The views of individual scientists relative to those of the broader toxicology community
  3. Studies from scientists working with environmental groups
  4. Studies from scientists working in the private sector
  5. Studies from scientists working in the government sector